A patent is a unique privilege given for an innovation, be it a product or a procedure, that fundamentally presents a fresh approach to accomplishing something or proposes an innovative technical resolution to a challenge. To obtain a patent, detailed technical information regarding the innovation must be revealed to the public through a patent application.

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    A patent constitutes an exclusive entitlement granted to the patentee for a specific duration, offering control over their invention. Patent registration bestows upon the patentee the authority to regulate, create, employ, vend, or import the patented product or the process involved in its production. Once a patent is registered, unauthorized usage of the invention becomes impermissible without the patentee’s consent. The patentability of an invention hinges on several factors, including its innovativeness, involving a unique and industrially applicable inventive step.

    In India, the legal framework governing patents comprises the Patent Act of 1970 and the Patent Rules of 1972.

    Patent registration endows individuals or firms with intellectual property rights over their inventions. Applications for patent registration can be submitted by either individuals or entities, and the Indian government has established an Intellectual Property Department to confer exclusive rights for unique inventions. Substantiating the uniqueness of an invention requires the inventor to furnish all pertinent evidence.

    The process of patent registration in India is overseen by “The Patent Office, Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks.” Applications for patent registration, along with the provisional or complete specification, can be electronically filed with the designated government authority.

    What Qualifies for Patenting in India?

    Before initiating the patent registration process in India, it is crucial to understand the types of innovations that are eligible for patent protection.

    Inventions can pertain to work processes, manufacturing, machinery, computer software, or any novel creation not previously disclosed to the public.

    What Types of Inventions are Ineligible for Patenting?

    The following, as per The Patent Act of 1970, are not considered inventions:

    Anything contrary to natural laws.
    Inventions prejudicial to human, animal, plant life, health, or the environment.
    Mere discovery of a scientific principle or formulation of an abstract theory.
    Mere discovery of any living or non-living substance occurring in nature.
    Invention of a known process or machine unless it results in a new product.
    Mere admixture resulting in the collection of component properties.
    Simple arrangement or rearrangement of devices common in nature.
    Inventions excluded by the Patents (Amendment) Act of 2002.
    Methods used for agricultural or horticultural purposes.
    Processes related to medicinal, surgical, curative, prophylactic diagnostic, therapeutic, or human treatment.
    Processes used for animal treatment to eliminate disease.
    Inventions related to plants, animals, including seeds, varieties, species, and essentially biological processes for plant and animal production, excluding microorganisms.
    Computer programs or mathematical methods.
    Creations related to literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works, including cinematographic and television productions.
    Mere methods of playing games.
    Mere presentation of information.
    Topography of integrated circuits.
    Inventions aggregating or duplicating known properties of traditionally known components.
    Inventions related to atomic energy.

    No patent shall be granted for inventions related to atomic energy.

    Advantages of Patent Registration

    Patents hold significance because they provide ownership of intellectual property to individuals who conceive a product or idea. This safeguards them from losing rights to their original concepts and enables them to receive royalty compensation if others infringe upon their patents. Awareness of the patent expiration date is crucial to uphold these rights, as certain patents, lasting for 20 years, cannot be renewed under fixed terms after expiration.

    Numerous other factors contribute to the importance of patents, including:


    By patenting a product or idea, a company establishes legal ownership within its own country and potentially in other nations. This legal standing aids in preventing unauthorized use by competing companies.


    Patents grant exclusive rights to the owner for the duration of the patent, allowing them to utilize or profit from the invention as they see fit. For start-up companies, this exclusivity provides valuable time to generate income before facing competition.


    Companies can generate a steady income by licensing the use of their patented invention to other businesses. This is particularly beneficial when a company has limited resources to fully exploit the invention.


    A robust patent portfolio enhances a business’s appeal to potential investors and fosters a positive reputation for innovation and creativity. This reputation can aid in attracting and retaining high-quality employees.


    Patenting an invention positions a company as the sole provider of that product in the market. This exclusivity becomes a valuable aspect of advertising campaigns and marketing strategies.

    Documents Needed for Filing a Patent Registration Application

    To initiate the Patent Registration application process in India, the following documents are necessary:

    Application for Patent Registration in Form-1
    Complete specifications in Form-2; however, if unavailable, a Provisional Specification may be submitted.
    Statement and Undertaking in Form-3
    A declaration from the inventor asserting inventorship in Form-5
    Proof from the inventor establishing the right to file a Patent Registration application.
    If a patent agent or patent attorney files the application, a Power of Authority in Form-26 is required.
    For convention applications (Paris convention) or PCT national phase applications, priority documents must be filed along with the application or within 18 months from the priority date.
    National Biodiversity Authority permission is mandatory if the application is related to biological material obtained from India.
    The Patent Registration application form should clearly indicate the source of origin for any biological material used in the specification.
    The Patent Registration application must be signed by either the applicant or the Patent attorney, including the name and date. Additionally, the Specification (Complete or Provisional) must be signed on the last page along with the date.

    Process of Patent Registration

    The process of patent registration involves filing an application with the designated authority to officially register an invention in accordance with The Patent Act, 1970. Through patent registration, an inventor gains exclusive rights and control over their invention, helping to prevent future disputes related to infringement.

    When pursuing patent registration in India, the following points should be taken into consideration:

    Patent Search:

    Before initiating the patent registration process, it is essential to conduct a patent search to assess the nonobviousness of the invention. If a similar patent already exists, the patent cannot be granted. This search streamlines the registration process, allowing you to skip further steps if a similar patent is found.

    Patent Domicile:

    Patent registration in India provides protection only within the country. To safeguard your invention in other countries, a separate patent registration application must be filed in each desired country.

    Filing of Patent Registration Application:

    To commence the patent registration process, an application is submitted along with necessary details about the invention to the intellectual property department.

    Review of Patent Registration Application:

    Following the submission of a patent application, the Indian government’s patent office scrutinizes the application to check for existing patents with similar ideas. If the invention is unique and meets the criteria for patentability, the patent will be granted.

    Patent Grant:

    Once the patent registration application is reviewed and approved, the application status is updated online on the website of the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. The entire process, from application submission to the issuance of a patent certificate, typically takes around one year.

    Validity for a Registered Patent in India

    A registered patent remains valid for a period of 20 years in India, starting from the date when the provisional or complete patent registration application is submitted. Once the designated 20-year term is completed, the patent enters the public domain.

    What is the Process of Patent Renewal and How Can it be Applied for?

    To maintain the validity of a patent, it is necessary to renew it annually. Failure to renew a patent result in its expiration, leading to its entry into the public domain. In India, the patent renewal process involves the patentee submitting a renewal application and the prescribed fees. The patent renewal fee is due at the conclusion of the second year from the date of patent registration.
    If the renewal fees are not paid within the stipulated timeframe, the patent ceases to be in effect. To reinstate it, a restoration application must be filed using the prescribed Form-15 within 18 months from the date the patent lost its effect.
    With Sadique and Ameen Associates, clients can secure exclusive rights to their inventions, navigate the complexities of patentability, and safeguard their intellectual property in a seamless and efficient manner.